Clinical pathology is composed of the following sub-specialities:

The section of Hematology and blood transfusion has five full time faculty who provide a vast array of services related to blood disorders and blood cancers, including the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of such conditions.
The section strives to provide the highest standard of both clinical and laboratory hematological care with a state-of-the-art laboratory employing up-to-date techniques such as flow cytometry, haemoglobin electrophoresis, specialized coagulation, molecular diagnostics, apheretic platelets and electronic red blood cell cross match . We treat a broad range of benign and malignant hematological disorders both on an in-patient and out-patient basis.

The Clinical Microbiology Laboratory is a full-service laboratory offering diagnostic bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, virology, and mycobacteriology and molecular pathology. The laboratory receives specimens from in-patients at the Aga Khan University Hospital and the University's out-patient clinics, as well as from several outreach sites throughout the country.

The Microbiology Laboratory is composed of several sections including Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Mycobacteriology.

The Clinical Chemistry Laboratory is a state-of-the-art, fully automated laboratory. Clinical Chemistry includes STAT and routine testing in the areas of general chemistry, endocrinology, special chemistry, immunology, and toxicology. The Clinical Chemistry Laboratory services the Aga Khan University Hospital & all its outreach centers.

The Chemistry Laboratory performs over 1 million reportable tests per year. The laboratory has a COBAS system and Abbott Architects instruments. The testing menu includes routine chemistry and specialty testing such as tumor markers, reproductive hormones, hepatitis testing, therapeutic drug monitoring, and infectious disease tests.

Anatomic pathology is composed of the following sub-specialities:

We provide autopsies for patients of our health system that have passed either inside or outside of our hospital. Our faculty, residents and technical staff work together in teams to provide a professional and compassionate service to families. Our autopsies are performed in a modern state-of-the-art autopsy suite.

An autopsy is a systemic examination of a deceased body to determine the cause of death and document the existence of any diseases or conditions. It is able to answer many questions posed by the family and clinicians. An autopsy is similar to a surgical procedure. Autopsies do not delay funeral arrangements or prevent open casket viewing of the body.

Within 24 hours of the autopsy we will provide a Provisional Diagnoses Report to the clinician to assist with the timely completion of the death certificate. A final autopsy report will be prepared within 30 days after review of the microscopic and other additional testing that is performed following the autopsy procedure.

Our autopsies are only performed if there is a signed consent of the next-of-kin.

Cytopathology is a boarded sub-specialty of Anatomic Pathology. Broadly defined it is a diagnostic discipline that requires application of distinct and discrete sets of criteria for evaluation of patient samples from diverse anatomic locations. Specific diagnostic criteria are required because the unifying theme of cytology samples is the fact that cells are dispersed and therefore present outside the context of tissue architecture. That is to say, cells are either smeared onto a slide (conventional Pap test; brushings from airway, bile duct, etc.; fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy material) or suspended in a liquid medium and processed by varying techniques as appropriate (e.g. Liquid-based Pap test; CSF; effusion fluids; FNA material).

Although the primary function of a cytopathologist is to appropriately apply cytopathologic criteria to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, it is also necessary to understand specimen procurement and specimen processing. It is essential for the cytopathologist to appreciate when a diagnosis cannot and should not be preferred; to appreciate the importance of clinical history in the formulation of Differential Diagnoses ; and to appreciate the impact of a cytologic diagnosis on patient management. We offer a complete range of services including Gynecologic and Non-Gynecologic Cytology, FNA biopsy interpretation, adequacy assessment and performance, and Consultation. We are always available to discuss test requests and results with submitting physicians.
Clinical services include an examination of central and peripheral nervous system tissues for diagnosis and support of the mission of clinical departments including Neurology, Neurosurgery, Radiology, and Psychiatry. We provide general tissue diagnoses as well as special testing using immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization and molecular biology technology. Educational activities include teaching neuropathology to pathology, neurology and neurosurgery residents and medical students through scheduled neuropathology rotations, conferences, and lectures. Research activities are performed through extensive collaboration with a number of other departments and programs.
Surgical Pathology provides diagnostic services to the patients and physicians of Illinois. Our faculty and staff provide both general tissue diagnosis as well as special testing for tumor and prognostic markers. We perform our services in close collaboration with multiple other departmental units.

Surgical Pathology examines tissue for diagnosis. All tissue specimens are accessioned assigned a unique identifier. Faculty, pathology residents and pathologists' assistants examine tissue including dissection of complex specimens and determine which sections to submit for microscopic examination. Tissue for banking and special studies is also selected at this time. Small specimens procured for diagnosis (biopsies) are given priority with expedited processing. Complex specimens may require overnight fixation to stabilize tissue for further dissection and procurement of tissue for microscopic sections. Specimens needing decalcification may require additional time. Findings of complex specimens are documented by digital imaging.

Examination of most tissue specimens includes microscopic examination and this includes processing, embedding, sectioning and staining (microscopic) slides. This process typically takes from 18 to 24 hours to complete as tissue must be carefully dehydrated and then completely infused with paraffin to stabilize the tissue for sectioning and staining.

Once microscopic slides are prepared, surgical pathologists, fellows and pathology residents review the slides and construct diagnostic reports. This slide review to posting of a final diagnosis may take another 24 hours to complete and completion of reports for complex specimens requiring specialized studies typically requires additional time with most complex cases reported within seven working days. All cases are reviewed and signed out by surgical pathology faculty. Surgical Pathology does not post preliminary diagnoses.
The primary function of a renal pathologist is to interpret the biopsy tissue in the clinical context, taking laboratory test results into account in the final interpretation. The pathologist also ensures that the specimen procured is adequate and representative and assures appropriate processing.

The pathologist/assistant triages the biopsy material to optimally utilize it for testing for light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The pathologist also interacts with clinicians to communicate critical information which ensures that patients receive optimal care.
The pediatric pathology service specializes in the evaluation of tissue specimen from patients of pediatric age (0-18 years) and from perinatal specimens including evaluation of fetal malformations and placentas. ​

Meet our Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Specialists ​

Contact us

Phone: +254 (0)20366 2229
Mobile: +254 (0)711092229