X-Ray


X-rays (x-radiation) are a type of radiation known as electromagnetic waves. When directed towards the body, the waves are able to produce black and white images of the body based on absorption.  Bones absorb the most radiation and appear white in an x-ray image, while fat and soft tissues absorb less and appear grey. Hollow structures, like the lungs, appear black on an x-ray image because they contain air. 

People think of x-rays when checking for broken bones although x-rays are also used to detect but not limited to, breast cancer, pneumonia and tuberculosis.​

A mammogram is an x-ray of either one or both the breasts to help in the screening for breast cancer in women.

Preparations for the test:

  • Please bring your test referral form (letter from the doctor) when you come for the exam.

  • Schedule an appointment for the test for when your breasts are least likely to be tender. If you haven’t reached menopause, this is usually the week after your menstrual cycle. 

  • Please remove metal objects, including jewellery, dentures, spectacles and hearing aids before coming for the test. Metallic objects may interfere with producing accurate results. 

  • Please inform the doctor or technologist if you are pregnant or think you maybe pregnant.​

The bone mineral density test is an x-ray of the bones to measure the amount of calcium and other minerals in the bones. Bone mineral density test helps in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and assess the probability of bone fractures. 

Preparations for the test:

  • Please bring your test referral form (letter from the doctor) when you come for the exam.

  • Please remove metal objects, including jewellery, dentures, spectacles and hearing aids before coming for the test. Metallic objects may interfere with producing accurate results.

  • Please inform your doctor or technologist if you have recently had a CT scan, nuclear medicine test or a barium exam. The contrast materials used in these tests may interfere with the results of the bone mineral density test. 

  • Please inform the doctor or technologist if you are pregnant.

Fluoroscopy is a type of clinical imaging that involves the passage of x-ray beams through the body to produce real time moving images of the internal parts of the body. The image is transmitted to a monitor so the movement of a body part or of an instrument or contrast agent (“X-ray dye”) through the body can be seen in detail.

Fluoroscopy is used in a wide variety of examinations and procedures to diagnose or treat patients, including but not limited to, a view of the gastrointestinal tract, to direct the movement of a catheter through blood vessels, bile ducts or the urinary system, placement of devices within the body to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels and to view blood vessels and organs.

​Preparations for the test:

  • Please bring your test referral form (letter from the doctor) when you come for the exam.

  • It is suggested that you schedule to have the test immediately after your period ends to ensure that you are not pregnant. 

  • Please do not eat or drink anything after midnight if your test is scheduled for the morning. If it is scheduled for sometime in the afternoon, you can have a slice of dry toast and clear liquid for breakfast.​

These are special x-ray techniques that provide images of the teeth and jaw.

An OPG (orthopantomogram) gives a panoramic image of the mouth, giving information on the teeth and the bones of the upper and lower jaw.

A CEPH (cephalometry) is used to obtain measurements and determine relationships of the structures of the lower face e.g. for plastic surgery, orthodontics. 

Preparations for the test:

  • Please bring your test referral form (letter from the doctor) when you come for the exam.

  • There are no special preparations required. However, please brush your teeth before coming in for the test.​