Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia 


Broncho pulmonary dysplasia occurs in premature new-borns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to underdeveloped lungs and prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Infants born with immature and delicate lungs require artificial ventilation via breathing machines which causes further damage to the lungs leading to oxygen dependency.  If this lasts for more than a month, the condition is classified as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

The risk of developing BPD is highest for infants who are born underweight or premature, as their lungs are not fully developed. However, some full term babies can contract lung problems or infections, leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia.​

​The main symptom of bronchopulmonary dysplasia is that your baby has to work harder than usual to breathe. This causes other symptoms such as:

  • Skin turning blue in colour

  • Rapid breathing

  • Frequent coughing or wheezing

  • Inability to eat properly

  • Vomiting repeatedly

​If your child is experiencing any of the above symptoms, consult with our expert doctors and nurses working with the Children’s Hospital Services at The Aga Khan University Hospital.

​Your time with your doctor maybe limited, so make sure to prepare for your visit beforehand. Here are some tips to help get you started.

If your baby’s symptoms last longer than a designated period (usually a month) doctors will use imaging techniques to diagnose BPD.

Methods of diagnosis include: 

  • Arterial blood gas: Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the acidity of the blood. The test is used to evaluate respiratory diseases and conditions that affect the lungs.

  • Chest x-ray: This is another imaging method that creates a picture of your baby’s chest, lungs, ribs and heart. The images are used to check for abnormalities.

Treatment for BPD includes:

  • Providing extra oxygen

  • Mechanical ventilation 

  • Medications which help open your baby's airways, and reduce inflammation

  • Limiting fluids, as excess fluid can worsen breathing ability

  • Proper nutrition

  • Immunization against lung infection​

​The Aga Khan University Hospital offers various support services to help with managing or recovering from the disease or condition. These include but are not limited to nutrition, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, specialized clinics and some patient support groups. Your doctor or nurse will advise you accordingly.

The Aga Khan University Hospital offers financial assistance to those who are in need and fulfil the eligibility criteria. For further information, you can contact the Patient Welfare Department. You can find the contact number of the Patient Welfare Department in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.

The financial counselling staff is available during office hours, at the main PBSD (Patient Business Services Department), to answer your financial queries on treatments’ costs and authorize admissions on partial deposit as per hospital policies allow. The financial counsellor in the emergency room is open 24/7. You can find the contact number of the Patient Business Services in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.

​Your doctor and or nurse will give you specific instructions about the prescribed medication. Please ensure that you take or use the prescribed medicine as advised. It can be dangerous to your health if you self-prescribe. Please inform the doctor or nurse beforehand if you have experienced any adverse reactions to any medications in the past. If you experience any symptoms of drug poisoning, overdose or severe reaction please contact the Pharmacy Service at The Aga Khan University Hospital immediately. You can find the contact number of the Pharmacy Services in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.



The information provided on our website is for educational purposes and not intended to be a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. You should always seek the advice of your doctor or other healthcare professional provider.