Initially your doctor will take a medical history and may ask detailed questions about your condition. This may be followed by a physical examination of your anus and rectum. To determine the cause of the disorder, a number of tests may be carried out:
Anal manometry to check the strength of the anal sphincter muscles by inserting a small thin, flexible tube, with a small balloon at the end. This is inserted into the rectum via the anus. The balloon may be expanded to test the tightness, sensitivity and functioning of your sphincter muscles.
Anal electromyography to determine whether nerve damage is the reason behind the malfunctioning of sphincter muscles.
Proctosigmoidoscopy is a test in which the last two feet of the colon (sigmoid) are inspected for inflammation, tumour or scar tissues. This is done by inserting a flexible thin tube, with a camera attach at its end, into the rectum to view the linings of the bowel.
Proctography is a test in which the stool holding capacity of your bowel and stool expelling capability of your body is evaluated. An X-ray video is taken by releasing liquid barium into the rectum.
Anorectal ultrasound in which a small probe-like instrument is inserted into the rectum via the anus to produce video images that are studied by your doctor to evaluate the sphincter muscles’ structure.
Colonoscopy in which a flexible tube is inserted to check the entire colon.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to evaluate the pelvic organs by getting clearer images.