​​​Hypospadias

Hypospadias is a birth defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis, instead of at the tip. The urethra is a tube which provides a path for the urine to drain from the bladder and exit the body. The exact cause of hypospadias is not unknown. Certain hormones, responsible for stimulating the urethral formation in the womb, malfunction resulting in the opening of the urethra to form in another location. It can occur in up to four boys out of a thousand newborn boys. Risk factors associated with hypospadias include:

  • Family history of hypospadias.

  • Maternal age of over thirty-five.

  • Smoking and drinking alcohol by the mother during pregnancy.

  • Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides used on fruits and vegetables​.​

Children born with hypospadias have the urethral opening on the underside of the penis. In severe cases, the opening is in the middle or the base of the penis. Rarely, the opening is found in or behind the scrotum. Other symptoms include:

  • Downward curve of the penis during erection (erections are common in infant boys).

  • Foreskin on the top half of the penis which makes it look like it has a “hood”.

  • Abnormal spraying of urine​.

Hypospadias in your infant son may be detected soon after birth. If your child’s doctor fails to notice it due to less severe hypospadias and you notice any of the above mentioned symptoms in your baby, seek immediate medical consultation from our doctors at the Children's Hospital Service Line at The Aga Khan University Hospital the only internationally accredited hospital in Pakistan. 

Your time with your doctor maybe limited, so make sure to prepare for your visit beforehand. Here are some tips to help get you started.​

Hypospadias is commonly diagnosed through a physical examination. Due to its common occurrence, hypospadias is routinely checked by doctors after birth.

You may feel distressed if your son is born with hypospadias but babies with this disorder are otherwise healthy and easy to care for. Moreover, hypospadias is easily cured with surgery performed by the highly skilled doctors at the Children's Hospital Service Line at The Aga Khan University Hospital.

Surgery is usually recommended between the ages of six to eighteen months as it is less traumatic for the child at that age. However, it can also be performed later on in life. The procedure takes less than three hours and performed under general anaesthesia. Tissue graft from the foreskin is used to repair the urethral opening and position it in the proper place. The curvature of the penis may also be straightened during the same surgery.    

You should not circumcise your son before the surgery as the foreskin tissue may be required for the treatment. The doctor will prescribe medications post surgery to keep your son as comfortable as possible.

The Aga Khan University Hospital offers various support services to help with managing or recovering from the disease or condition. These include but are not limited to nutrition, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, specialized clinics and some patient support groups. Your doctor or nurse will advise you accordingly.

The Aga Khan University Hospital offers financial assistance to those who are in need and fulfil the eligibility criteria. For further information, you can contact the Patient Welfare Department. You can find the contact number of the Patient Welfare Department in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.​

The financial counselling staff is available during office hours, at the main PBSD (Patient Business Services Department), to answer your financial queries on treatments’ costs and authorize admissions on partial deposit as per hospital policies allow. The financial counsellor in the emergency room is open 24/7. You can find the contact number of the Patient Business Services in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.​

Your doctor and or nurse will give you specific instructions about the prescribed medication. Please ensure that you take or use the prescribed medicine as advised. It can be dangerous to your health if you self-prescribe. Please inform the doctor or nurse beforehand if you have experienced any adverse reactions to any medications in the past. If you experience any symptoms of drug poisoning, overdose or severe reaction please contact the Pharmacy Service at The Aga Khan University Hospital immediately. You can find the contact number of the Pharmacy Services in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.​



The information provided on our website is for educational purposes and not intended to be a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. You should always seek the advice of your doctor or other healthcare professional provider.