​​Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which calcium deposits (calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate) form in the kidneys. This can be caused by any disease that leads to elevated levels of calcium in the blood or urine. These diseases include:​

  • ​Alport syndrome that damages the tiny blood vessels in the kidney

  • Bartter syndrome which is a group of rare diseases that affect the kidney

  • Chronic glomerulonephritis in which part of the kidney that filters waste is damaged

  • Excess excretion of calcium by the kidney

  • Renal tubular acidosis in which the kidneys fail to remove the acid from the blood and excrete it in the urine

  • Medullary sponge kidney

  • Hypercalcemia which denotes high calcium level in blood

  • Renal cortical necrosis

  • Tuberculosis

  • Familial hypomagnesemia

  • Primary hyperoxaluria

  • Renal transplant rejection

  • Use of certain medications including acetazolamide, amphotericin B, and triamterene

Nephrocalcinosis is related to kidney stones, as fragments of calcium deposits may break free from the kidney which provides nuclei for the formation of kidney stone. This disorder is mostly common in premature babies. Nephrocalcinosis can eventually lead to kidney failure.​

Symptoms that initially occur may belong to the diseases that results in nephrocalcinosis. Otherwise, there are no early symptoms of this disorder.

Symptoms, when occur, may include:

  • Blood in the urine

  • Frequent urination

  • Increased thirst

  • High blood pressure

  • Foamy appearance of urine due to excess protein​

If you notice any of the above mentioned symptoms in your child, it is best to consult one of our doctors at the Children's Hospital Service Line at The Aga Khan University Hospital the only internationally accredited hospital in Pakistan.​

Your time with your doctor maybe limited, so make sure to prepare for your visit beforehand. Here are some tips to help get you started.​

Nephrocalcinosis may be discovered during tests performed for renal insufficiency, kidney failure, obstructive uropathy or formation of urinary tract stones.

Tests that may be done to confirm the diagnosis include:​

  • Ultrasound to obtain images of the kidneys and the surrounding structures to detect any signs of damage

  • Abdominal CT (Computerized Tomography) scan in which a series of images are taken, using X-rays, to generate a three-dimensional image

  • Blood test to determine the levels of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and parathyroid hormone

  • Urinalysis to determine the acidity and levels of calcium, sodium, uric acid, oxalate, and citrate in the urine. You may be asked to collect your child’s urine samples over the period of twenty-four hours for an accurate result​

The goal of the treatment plan devised for your child will be to alleviate the symptoms and prevent more calcium from depositing in the kidneys. 

These will include methods to reduce the abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, and oxalate in the blood and urine. Your doctor working with the <Children’s Hospital Services> at The Aga Khan University Hospital will provide his/her utmost commitment to counsel you along the treatment process which will be devised keeping in mind the medical needs of your child.


The Aga Khan University Hospital offers various support services to help with managing or recovering from the disease or condition. These include but are not limited to nutrition, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, specialized clinics and some patient support groups. Your doctor or nurse will advise you accordingly.​

The Aga Khan University Hospital offers financial assistance to those who are in need and fulfil the eligibility criteria. For further information, you can contact the Patient Welfare Department. You can find the contact number of the Patient Welfare Department in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.

The financial counselling staff is available during office hours, at the main PBSD (Patient Business Services Department), to answer your financial queries on treatments’ costs and authorize admissions on partial deposit as per hospital policies allow. The financial counsellor in the emergency room is open 24/7. You can find the contact number of the Patient Business Services in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.


Your doctor and or nurse will give you specific instructions about the prescribed medication. Please ensure that you take or use the prescribed medicine as advised. It can be dangerous to your health if you self-prescribe. Please inform the doctor or nurse beforehand if you have experienced any adverse reactions to any medications in the past. If you experience any symptoms of drug poisoning, overdose or severe reaction please contact the Pharmacy Service at The Aga Khan University Hospital immediately. You can find the contact number of the Pharmacy Services in the ‘Important Numbers’ section on the website homepage.​




​​The information provided on our website is for educational purposes and not intended to be a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. You should always seek the advice of your doctor or other healthcare professional provider.